| 2001年1月大学英语六级考试试题及参考答案 |
Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Example: you will hear:
You will read: A) 2 hours. B) 3 hours.
C) 4 hours. D) 5 hours.
From the conversation we know that the two are talking about some work they will
start at 9 o'clock in the morning and have to finish at 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D) "5 hours" is the correct answer. You should choose ［D］ on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the centre.
Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [ D ]
1. A) The man thinks travelling by air is quite safe.
B) The woman never travels by plane.
C) Both speakers feel nervous when flying.
D) The speakers feel sad about the serious loss of life.
2. A) At the information desk.
B) In an office.
C) In a restaurant.
D) At a railway station.
3. A)Write the letter.
B) Paint the shelf.
C) Fix the shelf.
D) look for the pen.
4. A) It gives a 30% discount to all customers.
B) It is run by Mrs. Winter's husband.
C) It hires Mrs. Winter as an adviser.
D) It encourages husbands to shop on their own.
5. A) Long exposure to the sun.
B) Lack of sleep.
C) Too tight a hat.
D) Long working hours.
6. A) His English is still poor after ten years in America.
B) He doesn't mind speaking English with an accent.
C) He doesn't like the way Americans speak.
D) He speaks English as if he were a native speaker.
7. A) an auto mechanic.
B) An electrician
C) A carpenter.
D) A telephone repairman.
8. A) They both enjoyed watching the game.
B) The man thought the results were beyond their expectations.
C) They both felt good about the results of the game.
D) People were surprised at their winning the game.
9. A) Manager and employee.
B) Salesman and customer.
C) Guide and tourist.
D) Professor and student.
10. A) Tom has arranged a surprise party for Lucy.
B) Tom will keep the surprise party a secret.
C) Tom and Lucy have no secrets from each other.
D) Tom didn' t make any promise to Lucy.
Section B Compound Dictation
注意：听力理解的B节(Section B)为复合式听写 (Compound Dictation)，题目在试卷二上，现在请取出试卷二。
Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.
Birds that are literally halfasleep--with one brain hemisphere alert and the other sleeping--control which side of the brain remains awake, according to a new study of sleeping ducks.
Earlier studies have documented halfbrain sleep in a wide range of birds. The brain hemispheres take turns sinking into the sleep stage characterized by slow brain waves. The eye controlled by the sleeping hemisphere keeps shut, while the wakeful hemisphere's eye stays open and alert. Birds also can sleep with both hemispheres resting at once.
Decades of studies of bird flocks led researchers to predict extra alertness in the more vulnerable, endoftherow sleepers. Sure enough, the end birdstended to watch carefully on the side away from their companions. Ducks in the inner spots showed no preference for gaze direction.
Also, birds dozing(打盹) at the end of the line resorted to singlehemisphere sleep, rather than total relaxation, more often than inner ducks did. Rotating 16 birds through the positions in a four duck row, the researchers found outer birds halfasleep during some 32 percent of dozing time versus about 12 percent for birds in internal spots.
"We believe this is the first evidence for an animal behaviorally controlling sleep and wakefulness simultaneously in different regions of the brain，"the researchers say.
The results provide the best evidence for a longstanding supposition that singlehemisphere sleep evolved as creatures scanned for enemies. The preference for opening an eye on the lookout side could be widespread, he predicts. He's seen it in a pair of birds dozing sidebyside in the zoo and in a single pet bird sleeping by a mirror. The mirrorside eye closed as if the reflection were acompanion and the other eye stayed open.
Useful as halfsleeping might be, it's only been found in birds and such water mammals(哺乳动物) as dolphins, whales, and seals. Perhaps keeping one side of the brain awake allows a sleeping animal to surface occasionally to avoid drowning.
Studies of birds may offer unique insights into sleep. Jerome M. Siegel of the UCLA says he wonders if birds' halfbrain sleep "is just the tip of the iceberg(冰山)" He speculates that more examples may turn up when we take a closer look at other species.
11. A new study on birds' sleep has revealed that ________ .
A) halfbrain sleep is found in a wide variety of birds
B) halfbrain sleep is characterized by slow brain waves
C) birds can control their halfbrain sleep consciously
D) birds seldom sleep with the whole of their brain at rest
12. According to the passage, birds often half sleep because ________ .
A) they have to watch out for possible attacks
B) their brain hemispheres take turns to rest
C) the two halves of their brain are differently structured
D) they have to constantly keep an eye on their companions
13. The example of a bird sleeping in front of a mirror indicates that ________.
A) the phenomenon of birds dozing in pairs is widespread
B) birds prefer to sleep in pairs for the sake of security
C) even an imagined companion gives the bird a sense of security
D) a single pet bird enjoys seeing its own reflection in the mirror
14. While sleeping, some water mammals tend to keep half awake in order to ________ .
A) alert themselves to the approaching enemy
B) emerge from water now and then to breathe
C) be sensitive to the everchanging environment
D) avoid being swept away by rapid currents
15. By "just the tip of the iceberg"( Line 2, Para. 8), Siegel suggests that________ .
A) halfbrain sleep has something to do with icy weather
B) the mystery of halfbrain sleep is close to being solved
C) most birds living in cold regions tend to be half sleepers
D) halfbrain sleep is a phenomenon that could exist among other species
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.
A nine year old schoolgirl singlehandedly cooks up a sciencefair experiment that ends up debunking(揭穿……的真相) a widely practiced medical treatment. Emily Rosa's target was a practice known as therapeutic(治疗的) touch (TT for short), whose advocates manipulate patients' "energy field"to make them feel better and even, say some, to cure them of various ills. Yet Emily's test shows that these energy fields can't be detected, even by trained TT practitioners (行医者). Obviously mindful of the publicity value of the situation, Journal editor George Lundberg appeared on TV to declare, "Age doesn't matter. It's good science that matters, and this is good science."
Emily's mother Linda Rosa, a registered nurse, has been campaigning against TT for nearly a decade. Linda first thought about TT in the late '80s, when she learned it was on the approved list for continuing nursing education in Colorado. Its 100,000 trained practitioners (48,000 in the U. S.) don't even touch their patients. Instead, they waved their hands a few inches from the patient's body, pushing energy fields around until they' re in "balance." TT advocates say these manipulations can help heal wounds, relieve Pain and reduce fever. The claims are taken seriously enough that TT therapists are frequently hired by leading hospitals, at up to $ 70 an hour, to smooth patients' energy, sometimes during surgery.
Yet Rosa could not find any evidence that it works. To provide such proof,TT therapists would have to sit down for independent testing--something they haven't been eager to do, even though James Randi has offered more than $1 million to anyone who can demonstrate the existence of a human energy field. (He's had one taker so far. She failed.) A skeptic might conclude that TT practitioners are afraid to lay their beliefs on the line. But who could turn down an innocentfourthgrader? Says Emily:"I think they didn't take me very seriously because I'm a kid."
The experiment was straight forward: 21 TT therapists stuck their hands, palms up, through a screen. Emily held her own hand over one of theirsleft or rightand the practitioners had to say which hand it was. When the results were recorded, they'd done no better than they would have by simply guessing. If there was an energy field, they couldn't feel it.
16. Which of the following is evidence that TT is widely practiced?
A) TT has been in existence for decades.
B) Many patients were cured by therapeutic touch.
C) TT therapists are often employed by leading hospitals.
D) More than 100,000 people are undergoing TT treatment.
17. Very few TT practitioners responded to the $1 million offer because ________.
A) they didn't take the offer seriously
B) they didn't want to risk their career
C) they were unwilling to reveal their secret
D) they thought it was not in line with their practice
18. The purpose of Emily Rosa's experiment was ________.
A) to see why TT could work the way it did
B) to find out how TT cured patients' illnesses
C) to test whether she could sense the human energy field
D) to test whether a human energy field really existed
19. Why did some TT practitioners agree to be the subjects of Emil's experiment?
A) It involved nothing more than mere guessing.
B) They thought it was going to be a lot of fun.
C) It was more straightforward than other experiments.
D) They sensed no harm in a little girl's experiment.
20. What can we learn from the passage?
A) Some widely accepted beliefs can be deceiving.
B) Solid evidence weighs more than pure theories.
C) Little children can be as clever as trained TT practitioners.
D) The principle of TT is too profound to understand.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
What might driving on an automated highway be like? The answer depends on what kind of system is ultimately adopted. Two distinct types are on the drawing board. The first is a specialpurpose lane system, in which certain lanes are reserved for automated vehicles. The second is a mixed traffic system: fully automated vehicles would share the road with partially automated or manual driven cars. A specialpurpose lane system would require more extensive physical modifications to existing highways, but it promises the greatest gains in freeway（高速公路）capacity.
Under either scheme, the driver would specify the desired destination, furnishing this information to a computer in the car at the beginning of the trip or perhaps just before reaching the automated highway. If a mixed traffic system way was in place, automated driving could begin whenever the driver was on suitably equipped roads. If specialpurpose lanes were available, the car could enter them and join existing traffic in two different ways. One method would use a special onramp(入口引道).
As the driver approached the point of entry for the highway, devices install
ed on the roadside would electronically check the vehicle to determine its destinati
on and to ascertain that it had the proper automation equipment in good working order. Assuming it passed such tests, the driver would then be guided through a gate and toward an automated lane. In this case, the transition from manual to auto mated control would take place on the entrance ramp. An alternative technique could employ conventional lanes, which would be shared by automated and regular vehicles. The driver would steer onto the highway and move in normal fashion to a "transition'lane. The vehicle would then shift under computer control onto alane reserved for automated traffic. (The limitation of these lanes to automated traffic would, presumably, be well respected, because all trespassers(非法进入者) could be swiftly identified by authorities.)
Either approach to joining a lane of automated traffic would harmonize the movement of newly entering vehicles with those already traveling. Automatic control here should allow for smooth merging without the usual uncertainties and potential for accidents. And once a vehicle had settled into autmated travel, the driverwould be free to release the wheel, open the morning paper or just relax.
21. We learn from the first paragraph that two systems of automated highways ________.
A) are being planned
B) are being modified
C) are now in wide use
D) are under construction
22. A specialpurpose lane system is probably advantageous in that ________.
A) it would require only minor changes to existing highways
B) it would achieve the greatest highway traffic efficiency
C) it has a lane for both automated and partially automated vehicles
D) it offers more lanes for automated vehicles
23. Which of the following is true about driving on an automated highway?
A) Vehicles traveling on it are assigned different lanes according to their
B) A car can join existing traffic any time in a mixed lane system.
C)The driver should inform his car computer of his destination before driving onto
D) The driver should share the automated lane with those of regular vehicles.
24. We know from the passage that a car can enter a specialpurpose lane________.
A) by smoothly merging with cars on the conventional lane
B) by way of a ramp with electronic control devices
C) through a specially guarded gate
D) after all trespassers are identified and removed
25. When driving in an automated lane, the driver ________.
A) should harmonize with newly entering cars
B) doesn't have to rely on his computer system
C) should watch out for potential accidents
D) doesn't have to hold on to the steering wheel
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Taking charge of yourself involves putting to rest some very prevalent myths. At the top of the list is the notion that intelligence is measured by your ability to solve complex problems; to read, write and compute at certain levels;and to resolve abstract equations quickly. This vision of intelligence asserts formal education and bookish excellence as the true measures of selffulfillment. It encourages a kind of intellectual prejudice that has brought with it some discouraging results. We have come to believe that someone who has more educational merit badges, who is very good at some form of school discipline is"intelligent." Yet mental hospitals are filled with patients who have all of the properly lettered certificates. A truer indicator of intelligence is an effective, happy life lived each day and each present moment of every day.
If you are happy, if you live each moment for everything it's worth, then you are an intelligent person. Problem solving is a useful help to your happiness, but if you know that given your inability to resolve a particular concern you can still choose happiness for yourself, or at a minimum refuse to choose unhappiness, then you are intelligent. You are intelligent because you have the ultimate weapon against the big N. B. D. --Nervous Break Down.
"Intelligent'people do not have N.B.D.'s because they are in charge of themselves. They know how to choose happiness over depression, because they know how to deal with the problems of their lives.
You can begin to think of yourselfas truly intelligent on the basis of how you choose to feel in the face of trying circumstances. The life struggles are pretty much the same for each of us. Every one who is involved with other humanbeings in any social context has similar difficulties. Disagreements, conflictsand compromises are a part of what it means to be human. Similarly, money, growing old,sickness, deaths, natural disasters and accidents are all events which present problems to virtually all human beings. But some people are able to make it, to avoid immobilizing depression and unhappiness despite such occurrences, while others collapse or have an N. B.D. Those who recognize problems as a human condition and don' t measure happiness by an absence of problems are the most intelligent kind of humans we know; also, the most rare.
26. According to the author, the conventional notion of intelligence measured in terms
of one' s ability to read, write and compute ________.
A) is a widely held but wrong concept
B) will help eliminate intellectual prejudice
C) is the root of all mental distress
D) will contribute to one's selffulfillment
27. It is implied in the passage that holding a university degree ________.
A) may result in one's inability to solve complex reallife problems
B) does not indicate one's ability to write properly worded documents
C) may make one mentally sick and physically weak
D) does not mean that one is highly intelligent
28. The author thinks that an intelligent person knows ________.
A) how to put up with some very prevalent myths
B) how to find the best way to achieve success in tire
C) how to avoid depression and make his life worthwhile
D) how to persuade others to compromise
29. In the last paragraph, the author tells us that ________.
A) difficulties are but part of everyone's life
B) depression and unhappiness are unavoidable in life
C) everybody should learn to avoid trying circumstances
D) good feelings can contribute to eventual academic excellence
30. According to the passage, what kind of people are rare?
A) Those who don't emphasize bookish excellence in their pursuit of happiness.
B) Those who are aware of difficulties in life but know how to avoid unhappiness.
C) Those who measure happiness by an absence of problems but seldom suffer from N.
B. D. ' s.
D) Those who are able to secure happiness though having to struggle against trying
PartIII Vocabulary (20 minute)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part.For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) . Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
31. Starting with the ________ that there is life on the planet Mars, the seientst
went on to develop his argument.
A) premise B) pretext C) foundation D) presentation
32. After several nuclear disasters, a ________ has raged over the safety of nuclear
A) quarrel B) suspicion C) verdict D) controversy
33. Their diplomatic principles complely laid bare their ________ for world conquest.
A) admiration B) ambition C) administration D)orientation
34. The director gave me his ________ that he would double my pay if I did my job well.
A) warrant B) obligation C) assurance D) certainty
35. The Christmas tree was decorated with shining ________ such as colored lights and
A) ornaments B) luxuries C) exhibits D) complements
36. The two most important ________ in making a cake are flour and sugar .
A) elements B) components C) ingredients D) constituents
37. Cultural ________ indicates that human beings hand their languages down from one
generation to another.
A) translation B) transition C) transmission D) transaction
38. We must look beyond ________ and assumptions and try to discover what is missing.
A) justifications B) illusions C) manifestations D) specifications
39. No one imagined that the apparently ________ businessman was really a criminal.
A) respective B) respectable C) respectful D) realistic
40. If nothing is done to protect the environment, millions of spedes that are alive
today will have become ________ .
A) deteriorated B) degenerated C) suppressed D) extinct
41. The ________ of the scientific attitude is that the human mind can suceeed in
understanding the universe.
A) essence B) texture C) content D) threshold
42. The old lady has developed a ________ cough which cannot be cured completely in a
A) perpetual B) permanent C) chronic D) sustained
43. What the correspondent sent us is an ________ news report. We can depend on it
A) evident B) authentic C) ultimate D) immediate
44. Having had her as a professor and adviser, I can tell you that she is an
_______ force who pushes her students to excel far beyond their own expectations.
A) inspirational B) educational C) excessive D) instantaneous
45. Some researchers feel that certain people have nervous systems particularly ______
to hot, dry winds. They are what we call weathersensitive people.
A) subjective B) subordinate C) liable D) vulnerable
46. Hurricanes are killer winds, and their ________ power lies in the physical damage
they can do.
A) cumulative B) destructive C) turbulent D) prevalent
47. In some countries, students are expected to be quiet and ________ in the classroom.
A) skeptical B) faithful C) obedient D) subsidiary
48. In spite of the ______economic forecasts, manufacturing output has risen slightly.
A) gloomy B) miserable C) shadowy D) obscure
49. Body paint or face paint is used mostly by men in preliterate societies in order
to attract good health or to _______ disease.
A) set aside B) ward off C) shrug off D) give away
50. The international situation has been growing _____difficult for the last few years.
A) invariably B) presumably C) increasingly D) dominantly
51. The prisoner was ______ of his civil liberty for three years.
A) discharged B) derived C) deprived D) dispatched
52. Small farms and the lack of modern technology have ______ agricultural production.
A) blundered B) tangled C) bewildered D) hampered
53. The Japanese scientists have found that scents ______ efficiency and reduce stress
among office workers.
A) enhance B) amplilf C) foster D) magnify
54. All the students have to ______to the rules and regulations of the school.
A) confirm B) confront C) confine D) conform
55. He ______ his head, wondering how to solve the problem
A) scrapped B) screwed C) scraped D) scratched
56. As soon as the boy was able to earn his own living he ______ his parents' strict
A) defied B) refuted C) excluded D) vetoed
57. The helicopter a light plane and both pilots were killed.
A) coincided with B) stumbled on C) tumbled to D) collided with
58. To ______ is to save and protect, to leave what we ourselves enjoy in such good
condition that others may also share the enjoyment.
A) conserve B) conceive C) convert D) contrive
59. Put on dark glasses or the sun will ______ you and you won' t be able to see.
A) discern B) distort C) distract D) dazzle
60. In ______ times human beings did not travel for pleasure but to find a more
A) prime B) primitive C) primary D) preliminary
Part IV Cloze ( 15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B) C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE with a single line through the centre.
In the United States, the first day nursery, was opened in 1854. Nurseries were established in various areas during the 61 half of the 19th century; most
of 62 were charitable. Both in Europe and in the U.S., the daynursery movemen
t received great 63 during the First World War, when 64 of manpower caused the
industrial employment of unprecedented(前所未有) numbers of women. In some European countries nurseries were established 65 in munitions(军火) plants, under dir
ect government sponsorship. 66 the number of nurseries in the U.S. also rose 67 ,
this rise was accomplished without government aid of any kind. During the years
following the First World War, 68 , federal,State, and local governments gradually began to exercise a measure of control 69 the day nurseries, chiefly by 70 them and by.
The 71 of the Second World War was quickly followed by an increase in the number of day nurseries in almost all countries, as women were 72 called up on to replace men in the factories. On this 73 the U.S. government immediately came to the support of the nursery schools, 74 $ 6,000,000 in July, 1942,for a nurseryschool program for the children of working mothers. Many States and local communities 75 this Federal aid. By the end of the war, in August, 1945, more than 100,000 children were being cared 76 in daycare centers receiving Federal 77 . Soon afterward, the Federal government 78 cut down its expenditures for this purpose and later 79 them, causing a sharp drop in the number of nursery schools in operation. However, the expectation that most employed mothers would leave their 80 at the end of
the war was only partly fulfilled.
61. A) latter C) other B) late D) first
62. A) those B) them C) whose D) imitation
63. A) impetus B) input C) imitation D) initiative
64. A) sources B) abundance C) shortage D) reduction
65. A) hardly B) entirely C) only D) even
66. A) Because B) As C) Since D) Although
67. A) unanimously B) sharply C) predominantly D) militantly
68. A) therefore B) consequently C) however D) moreover
69. A) over B) in C) at D) about
70. A) formulating B) labeling C) patenting D) licensing
71. A) outset B) outbreak C) breakthrough D) breakdown
72. A) again B) thus C) repeatedly D) yet
73. A) circumstance B) occasion C) case D) situation
74. A) regulating B) summoning C) allocating D) transferring
75. A) expanded B) facilitated C) supplemented D) compensated
76. A) by B) after C) of D) for
77. A) pensions B) subsidies C) revenues D) budgets
78. A) prevalently B) furiously C) statistically D) drastically
79. A) abolished B) diminished C) jeopardized D)precluded
80. A) nurseries B) homes C) jobs D) chidren
Section B Compound Dictation
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times 。When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from S1 to S7 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from S8 to S10 you are required to fill in the missing information. You can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
The human body is a remarkable food processor. As an adult, you may consume(S1) a ton of food per year and still not gain or lose a pound of body weight. You are (S2) harnessing, and consuming energy through the intricate (S3)
of your body in order to remain in energy balance. To (S4) a given body weight, your energy input must balance your energy output. However, sometimes the (S5) energy balance is upset, and your(S6) body weight will either fall or (S7) .
The term body image refers to the mental image we have of our own physical appea
rance, and (S8) . Research has revealed that about 40 percent of adult men and 55 percent of adult women are dissatisfied with their current body weight. (S9). Atthe college level, a study found that 85 percent of both male and female first year students desired to change their body weight. (S10) . Thinness is currently an attribute that females desire highly. Males generally desire muscularity. The vast majority of individuals who want to change their body weight do it for the sake of appearance: most want to lose excess body fat. while a smaller percentage of individuals actually want to gain weight.
1. W: Have you heard about the plane crash yesterday? It caused a hundred and twenty
deaths. I am never at ease when taking a flight.
M: Though we often hear about air crashes and serious casual deeds,flying is one of
the safest ways to travel.
Q: What do we learn from this conversation?
2. W: I have a complaint to make,Sir. I had waited ten minutes at the table before the
waiter showed up,and I finally got served. And I found it was not what I ordered.
M: I am terribly sorry,madam.It's a bit unusually busy tonight. As a compensation,
your meal will be free.
Q: Where does the conversation most probably take place?
3. M: I can't find my pen. I need to write a letter.
W: I'll look for it later. Right now I need you to help fix the shelf before paint
Q: What would they do first?
4. M: Mrs. Winter, I need your advice, I want to buy a dress for my wife, can you tell
me where I can get one at a reasonable price?
W: Sure, go to Richard's. It has the latest styles and gives a 30% discount to
husbands who shop alone.
Q: What do we know about Richard's shop?
5. M: My headaches are terribly. Maybe I need more sleep.
W: Actually, you need less sun and some aspirin. It would help if you wear a hat.
Q: What does the woman think is the cause of the man's headache?
6. M: Did you know this: after almost ten years in the United States, with such a
W: Yes, but he is proud of it. He says it is a part of his identity.
Q: What does the conversation tell us about Mr. Li?Li still speaks English.
7. W: This is Mrs. Starched,my heater is not getting any power and weatherman says the
temperature is to fall below zero tonight.Could you get someone to come over and
M: This is the busiest time of the year, but I'll speak to one of our men about
going over some time today.
Q: Who did Mrs. Starched want to come over?
8. M: Though we didn't win the game, we were satisfied with our performance.
W: You did a great job. You almost beat the world's champions. It's a real surprise
to many people.
Q: What do we learn from this conversation?
9. W: Sorry I did not come yesterday,because I had a temperature.Could you tell me the
requirement for my term paper?
M: The theme of your paper can be about business management or touring resources in
China, and the length of the paper should be no less than fifteen pages.
Q: What is the most probable relationship between the two speakers?
10. W: I don't think we should tell Tom about the surprising party for Lucy.
M: It's all right. He promised not to tell, and he does not make promises likely.
Q: What does the man mean?
Part I Listening Comprehension
l-10 A C C D A A B C D D
S1 over S2 constantly S3 mechanism
S4 maintain S5 overall S6 normal S7 increase
S8 This can be influenced by a variety of factors，including how much you weigh and how that weight is distributed.
S9 Similarly findings have also been reported at high school level，mainly with female students.
S10 The primary cause of this concern is the value that American society is ingeneral asociety to physical appearance.
PartⅡ Reading Comprehension
11. 正确答案为C)。根据文章第1、3-6段可知，对鸟类睡眠的最新研究表明，它们能够有意识地控制自己的半脑睡眠。这几段举例说明了对这个问题实验的情况。选项A)、B)、D)虽在文章第2 段中也提到了，但那是文献记载的以前研究的情况(Earlier studies have documented...)故均不是正确答案。
12. 正确答案为A)。根据文章第6段The results provide the best evidence for along standing supposition that singlehemisphere sleep evolved as creatures scanned for enemies.(这些研究结果为一个长久以来的假设提供了最好的证据，即单侧脑睡眠是在生物警惕敌人过程中进化形成的。)
13. 正确答案为C)。根据文章第6段内容：鸟类单侧脑睡眠是在警惕敌人过程中进化而来，此结论还可推而广之。在需要警惕的一侧，鸟儿喜欢睁着一只眼睛……，一对动物园里的鸟儿挨着打瞌睡时 是如此，宠物鸟靠镜子一侧的眼睛闭着，好象镜子中的影子是一个伙伴，而另一只眼睛却睁着， 也说明这种情况。所以选项C)是答案。
14. 正确答案为B)。根据文章第7段第2句Perhaps keeping one side of the brain awake allows a sleeping animal to surface occasionally to avoid drowning.(也许，保持一侧脑醒着可以使睡眠中的动物不时浮出水面而刁；淹死。)所以B)emerge from water now and then to breathe(不时浮出水面来呼吸)是正确答案。
15. 正确答案为D)。根据文章最后的一段，也就是含有这个短语的上下文。Studies of birds may offer unique insights into sleep...He (Siegel)speculates that more examples may turn up when we take closer look at other species.(对鸟类的研究可能提供对睡眠的独特认识。……他推测当我们对其他物种仔细观察时，就会发现更多的例证。)因此选项D)所说"半侧脑睡眠这种现象可能存在于其他物种"正是"just the tip of iceberg"所表达的意思。
16. 正确答案为C)。根据第2段The claims are taken seriously enough that TT therapists are frequently hired by leading hospitals.(这种宣扬很受重视，以致TT行医者经常受雇于大的医院……)选项A)文章中没有提及，选项B)叙述不准确，文中只是说，据称这种方法能使人病情好转，甚至说有的能治疗各种疾病"。选项D)与文章内容不符，文章说，川万受过培训的TT行医者甚至不接触病人身体……。故A)，B)，D)均不是答案。
17. 正确答案为C)。根据文章第3段第2句：为了提供这样一个证明(证明人有"能场'')，TT行医者不得不坐下接受独立的测试--这是他们一直都不愿意做的事情，即使詹姆斯·兰迪为能演示人存在"能场"的人提供一百多万美元的奖金。(To provide such proof, TT therapists would have to sit down for independent testingsomething they haven'tbeen eager to do, even though James Landi has offered more than $ 1 million to anyone who can demonstrate the existence of a human energy field.)
18. 正确答案为D)。根据文章第1段我们知道，TT行医者所宣扬的就是通过调节病人的"能场"来治病（whose advocates manipulate patient's "energy field" to make them feel better and even, say some, to cure them of various ills）。在第2段中，又提到"运用这种手法可以推动能场转动直到平衡(…pushing energy fieds around until they're in "balance")"而爱米丽·瑞莎的实验就是证明是否能场真的存在。特别文章最后一句If there was an energy field, they couldn't feel it.(如果有一个能场的话，他们也感觉不到。)选项C)说是测试她能否感觉到能场，如果是这样的话，前提是存在一个能场，这当然是错误的。A)，B)两个选项也是错误的。
19. 正确答案为D)。根据文章第3段从第2句到段末这部分：A skeptic might conclude that TT practitioners are afraid to lay their beliefs on the line. But who would turn down an innocent, fourthgrader?Says Emily:"I think they didn't take me very seriously because I'm a kid".(怀疑的人或许会因为TT行医者害怕使他们自己处于被揭露的危险中，但谁能拒绝一个天真的四年级的小学生呢?爱米丽说，"我想他们不会太把我当回事，因为我是个小孩子。)
20. 正确答案为A)。此题要求概括主题。文章第1句就是主题句：A nineyearold schoolgir
l singlehandly cooks up a sciencefair experiment the ends up debunking a wide
ly practiced medical treatment. (一个9岁的小女孩独自设计了一个公开的科学实验，结果揭穿了一种广为流行的医疗方法的真相。)
21. 正确答案为A)。根据第1段第2，3句：The answer depends on what kind of system is ultimately adopted. Two distinct types are on the drawing board. (答案取决于最后采用哪一种系统，两种不同的类型都在绘图板上。)回答此问题的关键是要知道drawingboard的意思。所以选项A) are being planned是正确答案。
22. 正确答案为B)。根据第1段最后一句：A specialpurpose lane system would require more extensive physical modifications to existing highways,but it promises the greatest gains in freeway capacity (特别目的车道系统要求对现有的高速公路进行更广泛的改造，但它会使高速公路获得最大的能力。)
23. 正确答案为C)。根据第2段第1句：Under either scheme, the driver would specify the desired destination, furnishing this information to a computer in the car at the beginning of the trip or perhaps just before reaching the automated highway.(不论采用那种设计，司机都需要在其开始行驶时或在到达自动化高速公路前确定要去的目的地，把这个信息输入车上的计算机。)故C)是正确答案。选项B)与文章内容相悖，因为原文第2段第2句是on suitably equipped roads而不是existing traffic。选项D)提到的情况只适用于第2种设计方案，即混合式交通系统。故A)，B)，D)均不是答案。
用特殊的人口引道。当司机接近高速公路人口处时，安装在道边的电子装置会检测车辆的目的地并搞清是否有能工作的自动化装置。(If specialpurpose lanes were available,…One method would use a special onramp. As drivers approached the point of entry for the highway, devices installed on the roadside would electronically check the vehicle to determine its destination and to ascertain that it had the proper automation equipment in good working order.)
25. 正确答案为D)。根据第3段的最后一句：And once a vehicle had settled into automated travel, the driver would be free to release the wheel, open the morning paperor just relax. (一旦车辆进入自动行驶状态，司机就可以放开方向盘，打开晨报或者只是休息。)
28. 正确答案为C)。选项A)与文章内容相悖，文章说要摒弃某些很流行的说法(putting rest some very prevalent myths)，而不是要忍耐这些说法。选项B)和选项D)的内容在文章中均未提到， 故只有选项C)是正确答案。另外，也可以根据第2段第1句来推断：If you are happy, if you live each moment for everything it's worth, then you are an intelligent person. (如果你感到愉快，如果你为所有值得的事物活每一时刻，你就是一个聪明的人。) '
29. 正确答案为A)。根据第4段第2，3，4句的内容：在任何社会环境中与别人交往，每个人都有相的困难。意见不合，冲突和妥协是作为人的一部分存在的。(Everyone who is involved with other human in any social context has similar difficulties. Disagreements, conflicts and compromises are a part of what it means to be human.)选项A)与之相符，是正确答案。选项B)干扰性较大，这与原文不符。原文说But some people are able to make it, to avoid immobilizing depression and unhappiness despite such occurrences.(但有些人能克服，尽管有这些事情发生，他们能避免陷入沮丧和不愉快中不能自拔。)这意味着生活中的沮丧和不愉快是可以避免的。
30. 正确答案为B)。根据第4段最后一句：Those who recognize problems as a human condition and don't measure happiness by an absence of problems are the most intelligent kind of human we know,also the most rare. (那些认识到困难是人生必然存在的事物，不以有没有困难来衡量愉快，是我们所知最聪明的一类人，也是很罕见的人。)
Part Ⅲ Vocabulary
35. 答案为A)。 ornaments意为"装饰物"，句意为：圣诞树用彩灯和玻璃球之类的装饰物修饰了起来。B)luxuries奢侈品；C)exhibits展览品；D)complements补充物。
36. 答案为C)。ingredients意为"(混合物中之)成分"，句意为：做蛋糕的最主要的成分是面粉和糖。其他三个名词的意思是：A)elements元素，要素；B)components(构成整体的)部件，D constituents要素。
39. 答案为B)。选项中三个形容词都有同一根词respect，特别注意它们意义的差别。A)respective分别的，各自的；B)respectable可敬的，值得尊敬的C) respectful尊重人的，有礼貌的；D)realistic现实(主义)的。选项B)符合题意，是正确答案。句意为：没有人会想象到，那个外表可敬的商人实际上是个罪犯。
49. 答案为B)。本题要求辨析四个动词短语。A)set aside不顾，置于一旁；B)ward off避开；C) shrug off不理，一笑置之；D)give away赠予，发出。选项B)符合句意要求，是正确答案。句意为：文身或文面多为尚无文字社会的人用来追求身体健康或避免疾病。
50. 答案为C)。increasingly意为"越来越…，日益"，句意为：在过去几年里，国际形势变得越来越困难。其它三个副词的意思是：A)invariably不变的，总是；B)presumably推测地，大概；D) dominantly起支配作用地。
52. 答案为D)。hamper意为"阻碍，束缚"，句意为：小农场以及缺乏现代技术束缚了农业的生产。其它三个动词的意义是：A) blundered盲动，脱口而出；B)tangled纠缠；C)bewildered迷惑。
57. 答案为D)。本题是动词短语辨析。四个动词短语的意义分别是：A)coincided with与......巧合；B)stumbled on偶尔遇到；C)tumbled to恍然大悟；D)collided with与…碰撞。选项D)符合题意，是正确答案。句意为：那架直升飞机与一架轻型飞机相撞，两个飞行员都遇难了。
59. 答案为D)。 dazzle意为"使人眩晕，眼花"，句意为：戴上墨镜，不然太阳会使你眼花，看不见东西。其它三个动词的意思是：A)discern辨认，识别；B)distort扭曲，歪曲；C)distract分散，分心。
62. 正确答案为B)。most of后面要用人称代词。
71. 正确答案为B)。根据句意"第二次世界大战的爆发"应是"The outbreak of the Second World War"。