Part ⅡReading Comprehension(35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
Perhaps all criminals should be required to carry cards which read : “Fragile : handle with care.” It will never do, theses days, to go around referring to criminal as violent thugs.You must refer to them politely as “social misfits” ( 不能适应社会的人).The professional killer who wouldn’t think twice about using his club or knife to batter some harmless old lady to death in order to rob her of her meager life savings must never be given a dose of his own medicine. He is in need of “hospital treatment”. According to his misguided defenders, society is to blame.A wicked society breeds evil or so the argument goes. When you listen to this kind of talk, it makes you wonder why we aren’t all criminals. We have done away with the absurdly harsh laws of the nineteenth century and this is only right. But surely enough is enough. The most senseless piece of criminal legislation in Britain and a number of other countries has been the suspension of capital punishment.
The violent criminal has become a kind of hero-figure in our time. He is glorified on the screen ; he is pursued by the press and paid vast sum of money for his “memories”. Newspapers which specialize in crime reporting enjoy enormous circulations and the publishers of trashy cops and robbers stories or “murder mysteries” have never had it so good. When you read about the achievements of the great train robbers, it makes you wonder whether you are reading about some glorious resistance movement. The hardened criminal is cuddled and cosseted by the sociologists on the one hand and adored as a hero by the masses on the other. It’s no wonder he is a privileged person who expects and receives VIP treatment wherever he goes.
Capital punishment used to be a major deterrent. It made the violent robber think twice before pulling the trigger. It gave the coldblooded poisoner something to ponder about while he was shaking up or serving his arsenic cocktail. It prevented unarmed policemen from being killed while pursuing their duty by killers armed with automatic weapons. Above all, it protected the most vulnerable members of society, young children, from brutal violence.It is horrifying to think that the criminal can literally get away with murder. We all know that “life sentence” does not mean what it says. After ten years or so of good conduct, the most desperate villain is free to return to society where he will live very comfortably, thank you, on the proceeds of his crime, or he will go on committing offences until he is caught again. People are always willing to hold liberal views at the expense of others. It’s always fashionable to pose as the defender of the under-dog, so long as you, personally, remain unaffected. Did the defenders of crime, one wonders, in their desire for fairplay, consult the victims before they suspended capital punishment? Hardly, you see, they couldn’t, because all the victims were dead.
21. According to the passage, which of the following is the author’s opinion?
A) All criminals should be required to carry cards read : “Fragile : Handle with Care.”
B) Capital punishment is the only way to deter criminals.
C) Society is to blame.
D) All criminals need hospital treatment.
22. The tone taken by the author towards these defenders of crime in the passage is .
A) ironicalB) criticalC) agitatedD) controversial
23. “Capital punishment” most probably means .
A) life sentenceB) severe punishmentC) fineD) sentence of death
24. Which of the following is true according to the passage?
A) There has been a marked trend in society towards the humane treatment of less fortunate members.
B) Everyone in society thinks it reasonable that all criminals should be punished.
C) The author sympathizes with all criminals.
D) Robbers usually think twice before shooting.
25. What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?
A) Professional killers should not be treated with humane treatment.
B) The violent robbers should think twice before pulling the trigger.
C) We should give the poisoner time to ponder about while he is shaking up or serving his arsenic cocktail.
D) Severe punishment,even death penalty, should be given to criminals.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
For about three centuries we have been doing science, trying science out, using science for the construction of what we call modern civilization. Every dispensable item of contemporary technology, from canal locks to dial telephones to penicillin, was pieced together from the analysis of data provided by one or another series of scientific experiments. Three hundred years seems a long time for testing a new approach to human interliving, long enough to settle back for critical appraisal of the scientific method, maybe even long enough to vote on whether to go on with it or not. There is an argument.
Voices have been raised in protest since the beginning, rising in pitch and violence in the nineteenth century during the early stages of the industrial revolution, summoning urgent crowds into the streets any day these days on the issue of nuclear energy. Give it back, say some of the voices, it doesn’t really work, we’ve tried it and it doesn’t work, go back three hundred years and start again on something else less chancy for the race of man.
The principle discoveries in this century, taking all in all, are the glimpses of the depth of our ignorance about nature. Things that used to seem clear and rational, matters of absolute certainty—Newtonian mechanics, for example—have slipped through our fingers, and we are left with a new set of gigantic puzzles, cosmic uncertainties, ambiguities; some of the laws of physics are amended every few years, some are canceled outright, some undergo revised versions of legislative intent as if they were acts of Congress.
Just thirty years ago we call it a biological revolution when the fantastic geometry of the DNA molecule was exposed to public view and the linear language of genetics was decoded. For a while, things seemed simple and clear, the cell was a neat little machine, a mechanical device ready for taking to pieces and reassembling, like a tiny watch. But just in the last few years it has become almost unbelievably complex, filled with strange parts whose functions are beyond today’s imagining.
It is not just that there is more to do, there is everything to do. What lies ahead, or what can lie ahead if the efforts in basic research are continued, is much more than the conquest of human disease or the improvement of agricultural technology or the cultivation of nutrients in the sea. As we learn more about fundamental processes of living things in general we will learn more about ourselves.
26. What can’t be inferred from the 1st paragraph?
A) Scientific experiments in the past three hundred years have produced many valuable items.
B) For three hundred years there have been people holding hostile attitude toward science.
C) Modern civilization depends on science so man supports scientific progress unanimously.
D) Three hundred years is not long enough to settle back critical appraisal of scientific method.
27. The principle discovery in this century shows .
A) man has overthrown Newton’s laws of physics
B) man has solved a new set of gigantic puzzles
C) man has lost many scientific discoveries
D) man has given up some of the once accepted theories
28. Now scientists have found in the past few years .
A) the exposure of DNA to the public is unnecessary
B) the tiny cell in DNA is a neat little machine
C) man knows nothing about DNA
D) man has much to learn about DNA
29. The writer’s main purpose in writing the passage is to say that .
A) science is just at its beginning B) science has greatly improved man’s life
C) science has made profound progress D) science has done too little to human beings
30. The writer’s attitude towards science is .
A) criticalB) approvingC) neutralD) regretful
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
The desire for achievement is one of life’s great mysteries. Social scientists have devoted lifetimes to studying the drives that spur us out of bed in the morning,compel us to work or study hard and spark all manner of human endeavor.Indeed, a 1992 textbook actually documents 32 distinct theories of human motivation.
Given this diversity of thought,it’s easy to forget that for a half century,American society has been dominated by the psychological school known as behaviorism, or Skinnerian psychology. Although behaviorism and its fundamental principle of “positive reinforcement” have long since lost their sway in academic circles, the Skinnerian legacy remains powerful in every realm of trash out. Do it, and you can go to the movies Friday night.Not in the mood for work? Keep plugging away,and you might get a bonus. Not interest in calculus? Strive for an A in the class, and you will make the honor roll. The theory may be bankrupt, but incentives and rewards are so much a part of American culture that it’s hard to imagine life without them.
Yet that’s exactly what a growing group of researchers are advocating today. A steady stream of research has found that rather than encouraging and diminishing performance, “our society is caught in a whopping paradox,” asserts Alfie Kohn, author of the new book published by Rewards (Houghton Mifflin), which surveys recent research on the effectiveness of rewards. “We complain loudly about declining productivity, the crisis of our school and the distorted values of our children. But the very strategy we use to solve those problems damaging rewards like incentive plans and grade and candy bars in front of people is partly responsible for the fix we’re in.”
It’s a tough argument to make in a culture that celebrates the spoils of success. Yet study after study shows that people tend to perform worse, to give up more easily and to lose interest more quickly when a reward is involved. Children who are given treats for doing artwork, for example, lose for tutoring youngsters don’t teach as enthusiastically as tutors offered nothing. And chief executive officers who have been awarded longterm incentive plans have often steered their companies toward lower returns.
31.According to behaviorism, all human actions .
A) are based on stimulus and response
B) have no bearing on human drives
C) are supposed to be highly motivated
D) are of a great mystery
32.Behaviorism basically believes in .
A) motivationB) performanceC) rewardsD) human factors
33. From the passage, it can be inferred that .
A) rewards are highly effective in America
B) rewards are not much soughtafter in academic circles
C) rewards have long lost their appeal in American society
D) Americans are addicted to rewards
34. The children’s behavior in the last paragraph .
A) can be best explained be behaviorism
B) can be linked to Pavlov’s dogs
C) shows that rewards may well kill desire
D) serve to provided evidence to behaviorism
35. Which of the following in support of the finding that “people tend to perform worse,…when a reward is involved”( last paragraph )?
A) People are not used to being conditioned by prizes.
B) Rewards, like punishments, are attempts to control behavior.
C) Rewards are so indispensable to American cultures.
D) The principle of “positive reinforcement” in not fully enforced.
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
In general, our society is becoming one of giant enterprises directed by a bureaucratic (官僚主义的) management in which man becomes a small, well-oiled cog in the machinery. The oiling is done with higher wages, well-ventilated factories and piped music, and by psychologists and “human-relations” experts; yet all this oiling does not alter the fact that man has become power-less, that he does not wholeheartedly participate in his work and that he is bored with it. In fact, the blue and the white-collar workers have become economic puppets who dance to the tune of automated machines and bureaucratic management.
The worker and employee are anxious, not only because they might find themselves out of a job; they are anxious also because they are unable to acquire any real satisfaction or interest in life. They live and die without ever having confronted the fundamental realities of human existence as emotionally and intellectually independent and productive human beings.
Those higher up on the social ladder are no less anxious. Their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates. They are even more insecure in some respects. They are in a highly competitive race. To be promoted or to fall behind is not a matter of salary but even more a matter of selfrespect. When they apply for their first job, they are tested for intelligence as well as for the tight mixture of submissiveness and independence. From that moment on they are tested again and again by the psychologists, for whom testing is a big business, and by their superiors, who judge their behavior, sociability, capacity to get along, etc. This constant need to prove that one is as good as or better than one’s fellow-competitor creates constant anxiety and stress, the very causes of unhappiness and illness.
Am I suggesting that we should return to the preindustrial mode of production or to nineteenth-century “free enterprise capitalism”? Certainly not. Problems are never solved by returning to a stage which one has already outgrown. I suggest transforming our social from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities—those of and of reason—are the aims of all social arrangements. Production and consumption should serve only as means to this end, and should be prevented from ruling man.
36. By “a well-oiled cog in the machinery” the author intends to render the idea that man is .
A) a necessary part of the society though each individuals function is negligible
B) working in complete harmony with the rest of the society
C) an unimportant part in comparison with the rest of the society, though functioning smoothly
D) a humble component of the society, especially when working smoothly
37. The real cause of the anxiety of the workers and employees is that .
A) they are likely to lose their jobs
B) they have no genuine satisfaction or interest in life
C) they are faced with the fundamental realities of human existence
D) they are deprived of their individuality and independence
38. From the passage we can infer that real happiness of life belongs to those .
A) who are at the bottom of the society
B) who are higher up in their social status
C) who prove better than their fellow-competitors
D) who could keep far away from this competitive world
39. To solve the present social problems the author suggests that we should .
A) resort to the production mode of our ancestors
B) offer higher wages to the workers and employees
C) enable man to fully develop his potentialities
D) take the fundamental realities for granted
40. The author’s attitude towards industrialism might best be summarized as one of .
A) approval B) dissatisfaction C) suspicion D) tolerance
Part ⅢVocabulary (20 minutes)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE answer that best complete the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
41. Since the most commonly accepted test is the TOEFL exam, most institutions will expect a TOEFL score for admission.
A) minimalB) maximalC) mimimumD) maximum
42. It was believed that his death with the robbery of the bank downtown.
A) accompaniedB) coincidedC) correlatedD) conformed
43. Does Emerson find his career full and as a basketball player?
A) conflictingB) charmingC) rewardingD) awarding
44. The local government gave the first to education after the war.
A) projectionB) protectionC） professionD) priority
45. The professor his habit of getting up early in the morning to do writing all his life.
A) projectionB) retainedC） retailedD) revitalized
46. The news of our team winning the match was really , and millions of people came out to celebrate the victory.
A) overwhelmingB) acceleratingC） promptingD) preceding
47. What the government should do urgently is to take actions to the economy.
A) brookB) blushC） boostD) brood
48. The explosion in the mine was by a careless miner who lit a match.
A) triggeredB) claimedC） hamperedD) protested
49. The mass newspaper depended significantly more on advertising than did their predecessors.
A) revenuesB) incomesC） avenuesD) outcomes
50. Some minerals are quite common, others are regionally , and still others are rare on the earth.
A) attributedB) distributedC） contributedD) scattered
51. The most successful way to solve the language problem while a foreign play is being performed is translation.
A) instantaneousB) spontaneousC） simultaneousD) homogeneous
52. The hostess in the contract that the rent should be paid in cash at the beginning of each month.
A) assumedB) submittedC） exposedD) specified
53. This year, the number of accidents has that of last year.
A) overtakenB) overweighedC） overcomeD) overshadowed
54. You must yourself or they will continue to bully you, so you will go on living in disgrace.A) assessB) assertC） maintainD) promote
55. While both plans were perfectly sensible, only one seemed in China’s particular situation.
A) availableB) feasibleC）resolvableD) presumable
56. A good teacher must know how to his ideas to the students, as generally agreed by educational experts.
A) transmitB) transferC） conveyD) communicate
57. If you keep on taking on more work than you can do, your health will .
A) declineB) degradeC） degenerateD) deteriorate
58. The director tried to wave aside these issues as details that would be settled later.
A) preliminaryB) primaryC） trivialD) alternative
59. As one of the youngest professors in the university, Miss King is certainly on the of a brilliant career.
A) endB) edgeC） thresholdD) course
60. During the famine of 1943, millions of peasants to the cities because they could not make a living in the countryside.
A) immigratedB) emigratedC） migratedD) generated
61. I’m sorry to inform you that your application has been declined. Our manager thought you were not for the post.
A) legibleB) eligibleC） validD) literate
62. Visitors to Britain are sometimes surprised to learn that newspapers there have such a large .
A) issueB) distribution C） coverageD) circulation
63. This line was carrying equal number of eastbound and westbound trains, and they regularly.
A) alteredB) alternatedC) switchedD) exchanged
64. The three astronauts have splashed down in the Pacific Ocean, only six miles from the aircraft carrier that was for the recovery mission.
A) dispatchedB) depositedC) deployedD) delivered
65. Pubs have fanciful names like “The Red Lion” or “The Pig and Whistle” and they often have picutre on a signboard outside to the name.
A) justifyB) illustrateC) modifyD) clarify
66. There are two main requirements before the fifthgeneration computer can become a reality and it is these that scientists are .
A) anticipatingB) tacklingC) manipulatingD) speculating
67. College students in this city have set up “the Cleaner Air Society” to help urban citizens become aware of the to our environment.
A) conditionsB) situations C) dangersD) threats
68. When you get a minor burn, pour some cold water on it, which will help the pain of the burn.
A) relieveB) relaxC) revealD) release
69. The library published a collection of books recently made to the public.
A) acceptableB) accessibleC) accommodableD) accountable
70. For 14 years after her spouse’s death, she saw the meaning of her life as nourishing her son and safeguarding her husband’s works.
A) dueB) loneC) soleD) keen
Part ⅣError Correction(15 minutes)
Directions: This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. If you change a word, cross it out and write the correct word in the corresponding blank. If you add a word, put an insertion mark (∧) in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross it out and be sure to put a (/) in the blank.
“ Home, sweet home” is a phrase that express an
essential attitude in the United States. Whether the reality
of life in the family house is sweet or no sweet. The S1
cherished ideal of home has great importance for many
This ideal is a vital part of the American dream. This
dream, dramatized in the history of nineteenth-century
European settlers of the American west, was to find
a piece of place, build a house for one’s family, and S2
started a farm. These small households were portraits of S3
independence : the entire family—mother, father, and children.
Even grandparents—live in a small house and working S4
together to support each other. Anyone understood the life S5
and death importance of family corporation and hard work.
Although most people in the United states no longer
live on farms, but the ideal of home ownership is just as S6
strong in the twentieth century, as it was in the nineteenth.
When U.S. soldiers came home before World War II for S7
example, they dreamed of buying houses and starting
families. But there was a tremendous boom in the home S8
building. The new house, typically in the suburbs,were
often small and more or less identical, but it satisfied S9
a deep need. Many regarded the single-family
house the basis of their way of life. S10
Part ⅤWriting(30 minutes)
Directions:for this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write an composition on the topic of A Speech on Tele-education. You should write no less than 120 words and base your composition on the outline below:
A Speech on Tele-education.
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
21. B22. A23. D24. A25. D26. C27. D28. D29. A30. B
31. A32. C33. D34. C35. B36. C37. D38. D39. C40. B
Part Ⅲ Vocabulary
41. C42. B43. C44. D45. B46. A47. C48. A49. A50. B
51. C52. D53. A54. B55. B56. C57. D58. C59. D60. C
61. B62. D63. B64. A65. B66. B67. D68. A69. B70. C
Part Ⅳ Error Correction
S1. no→notS2. place→landS3. started→startS4. working→work
S5. Anyone→EveryoneS6. but→\.S7. before→after
S8. But→AndS9. it→theyS10. house∧→as
Part Ⅴ Writing
A Speech on Tele—education
Ladies and Gentlemen:
With the rapid development of science and technology, tele—education has sped up in our country. While many people speak highly of its advantages, others see more disadvantages deriving from it.
The advocates of tele—education give their arguments as follows. For one thing,
tele—education makes it possible for people in remote areas to learn the subjects they are interested in. For another, people have a wider range of choices as to teachers and lessons through tele—education, because they can listen to the best lessons by the best teachers in the country, or even in the world.
Just as “Every advantage has its disadvantages”, the opponents believe that not all the people have access to tele—education because many are poor. In addition, the students cannot contact teachers, but interpersonal relations are important to their study.
As far as I am concerned, we should develop tele—education more rapidly to benefit more students. Meanwhile, we can design some programs to help teachers and students to contact each other.
Thank you for being with me. Good—bye.