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补足语详解及与双宾语区别

时间:2018-12-04 08:55来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
宾语和宾语补足语合起来称为复合宾语,主语补足语通常使用被动语态中,结构类似。

复合宾语

宾语和宾语补足语合起来称为复合宾语,该句型的谓语动词是宾补动词( actitive verb),这种动词后面接宾语,而此宾语后又接补充说明宾语的补足语( object complement)。
补足语可以是动词不定式,现在分词,过去分词,名词,形容词,副词,甚至是介词短语
常见的带复合宾语的动词有: appoin,believe, call, choose, consider, declare, elect, feel. find, keep, leave,let,make,name, nominate, prove,see,find, suppose,get,smell,have和vote等等。请看下面的例句:
 
1 I very much hope that this new medium will make my Christmas message more personal and direct.(我衷心希望,这种新媒体能让我的圣诞致辞更有人情味、更加直接)
该句的宾语是 my Christmas message,宾语补足语是 more personal and direct这里是形容词作宾语补足语.
 
再来看一个英语谚语,其意思类似于汉语中的“君子之交淡如水"
2 A hedge(树篱) between keeps friendship green. 保持距离,友谊常青(这句话可引申为“君子之交淡如水”)
该句的宾语是 friendship,宾语补足语是green这里是形容词作宾语补足语.
 
3 They appointed John chairman.(他们任命约翰为主席。)
该句的宾语是John,宾语补足语是 chairman。这里是名词作宾语补足语
 
4 I believe him to be true. 我相信他是真诚的
该句的宾语是him,宾语补足语是 to be true。这里是不定式作宾语补足语。

5 The chairman declared the meeting over.(主席宣布会议结来)
该句的宾语是 the meeting,宾语补足语是over。这里是副词作宾语补足语。
 
下面几句来自新概念3英语课文例句:
3. Several people complained of 'cat-like noises' at night and a businessman on a fishing trip saw the puma up a tree.(up a tree为介词短语做宾语补足语)
4. Suddenly, I saw the Officer's face light up。(light up为省略to的动词不定式做宾语补足语)
5. Imagine their dismay when they found a beautifully-cooked wallet and notes turned to ash!(turned to ash为过去分词做宾语补足语)
6. She heard the front door open and heavy footsteps in the hall.(open为不带to的不定式做宾语补足语)。 
7. If you lived in the Mediterranean, for instance, you would consider octopus a great delicacy. (a great delicacy.为名词做补足语)
8. You would not be able to understand why some people find it repulsive.(repulsive 为形容词做it宾语补足语)

区分双宾语和复合宾语

区分这两种宾语的方法很简单,就是在宾语后面加上be动词,若能构成一个语义通顺的句子,即是补足语。
因为宾语与宾语补足语的语义关系就相当于主语与主语补足语的关系,即类似一个主系表结构,所以,在宾语后面添上个系动词be,自然应该是能构成一个逻辑语义通顺的句子。而间接宾语与直接宾语二者之间就没有这样的语义关系,所以,添上be之后,自然是不能构成一个语义通顺的句子。
比较
1)I made John our chairman.
2)I made John a cake.
例句1)中,在宾语John后面添上一个is,即 John is our chairman.这说得通,所以例句1)中的 our chairman是宾语补足语。然而在例句2)中,在宾语Jhn后面添上一个is,即 John is a cake°.(约是一块蛋糕。)这显然讲不通,所以例句2)是一个双宾语结构, a cake是直接宾语
 

主语补足语

了解了复合宾语,主语补足语就好理解了,该句型通常用在被动句型,如新概念3英语课文例句:
As no pumas had been reported missing from any zoo in the country (missing from any zoo 为现在分词做主语补足语)
Paw prints were seen in a number of places and puma fur was found clinging to bushes.(clinging to bushes为现在分词做主语补足语)
The sad truth is that most of us have been brought up to eat certain foods and we stick to them all our lives. (to eat certain foods为most of us主语的补主语)

动词不定式还是现在分词

现在分词或过去分词的使用主要取决于宾语同分词所表示的动作之间是主动还是被动的关系。比较好区分。
还可使用动词不定式,其意义有所不同。使用动词不定式时,通常表示所做动作的全过程;使用现在分词时,往往表示动作的正在发生,即所做动作的部分过程,如
I saw her cross the road
我看到她穿过了马路。(从一边至另一边)
I saw her crossing the road
我看到她正在过马路。(也许正在路中央)
当然,当无需作语义上的这种区分时,可使用任何一种结构,
I often heard him sing (ing) this song
我经常听到他唱这支歌。

而动词不定式是否带to,这个问题比较复杂,暂不在此这说明。
 

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