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动词转换形容词被动和主动的总结

时间:2019-01-15 08:46来源:okeyen.com 作者:okeyen 点击:
英语中很多形容词由动词转换而来, 即通过动词加ed和动词加ing,这其实是现在分词和过去分词的区别。转换后的形容词的ing/ed是表示句子当中名词的属性。
文章中出现的问题答案见最后
动词的过去分词(ed)作定语时用于描述某人或某物的感受或状态,修饰的一般是人(或动物)。过去分词与被修饰的名词在逻辑上是被动关系,过去分词的动作发生在谓语之前或没有时间性。它的基本结构是动词加ed变为过去分词。
动词的现在分词(ing)作定语时用于描述由什么原因引起某人的感受,修饰的一般是物(或事情)。现在分词与被修饰的名词在逻辑上是主动关系,表示动作正在发生或与谓语同时发生。它的基本结构是动词加ing变为现在分词。

最常见的表示情感的及物动词:

interest(兴趣,关注)/interesting/interested
excite(兴奋,激动,刺激)/excited/exciting
exhilarte(高兴,兴奋)/exhilarited/exhilariting   与excite比较起来有高兴的意思(词根hilar就是高兴的意思)
thrill(非常兴奋,激动)/thrilled/thrilling 与excite比较更为强烈

enlighten(启发,开导)/enlightened(能被开导的,即开明的)/enlightening(受启发的)
It was a very enlightening interview.
那次面谈让人很受启发。

touch(感动,触动)/touched(感激的,受感动的)/touching(令人同情的,感人的)
move(感动)/moved/moving  和touch类似。
please(使满意)/pleased/pleasing
puzzele/puzzeled/puzzeling
surprise/surprised/surprising
disppoint/disppointed/disppointing
worry/worried/worrying:这组单词有必要说明下,worry 可以做动词,担心某事可以说I am worried about sth或I worry about sth. 这2句中be worried about表示一种感觉(feeling),而worry about这侧重为一种行为,动作。
astound/astounded/astounding
fascinate/fascinated/fascinating
absorb/absorbed/absorbing
 
inspire/inspring/inspired
 

有些组合的动词,只有主动ing(名词+动词ing)的形容词形式:

breathtaking 激动人心的
heart-stopping 使人非常兴奋的;令人十分担忧的
The exchange of points between the two teams during the game was heart-stopping.

chart-topping: 排行榜冠军Selling the most copies of a CD or album in a particular week.

练习:

Q1. They would like to visit one of America’s ____ national parks.
A: inspiring     B: inspired     C: awe-inspired     D: awe-inspiring 

Q2.  The experience of watching a live sports match is ____.
A: exhaust     B: exhausting    C: exhilarating     D: exhilarate    

Q3.  The match between the top teams was _____ .
A: heartbreaking     B: hard-working     C: heart-stopping     D: never-ending    

Q4.  The ____ story tells us to be brave.
A: heartbreak     B: heartwarming     C: broken heart     D: warming heart    

Q5.  The scenes in the new movie are ____ .
A: quite surprised    B: quite surprising     C: extremely surprised    D: extreme surprise    

Q6. I'm ____  to buy new clothes for my cousin's wedding.
A: very sad     B: thrilling     C: unpleasant     D:  thrilled    

Q7. The report about the accident is ____ .
A: upset     B: upsetting     C: upside down     D: up and down    

Q8. News about refugees in some countries is ______.
A: deeply worrying     B: deeply worried     C: in deep worry     D:  in deeply worry     

Q9.  I am a big fan of nature and find the natural world _____.
A: endlessly fascinate    B: endlessly fascinating     C: endless fascinating     D: endlessly fascinated   

Q10. Short stories by O. Henry usually have surprising endings and are extremely _____.
A: absorbing    B: absorbed    C: absorb     D: absorbs   

Q11 Unfortunately, the beaches became the moment that accident happened.
A: as spoiled    B: spoil    C: spoiled    D: spoiling    

Q12.  Staff at the Rembrandt are____; they always have these big smiles on their faces.
A: welcomed     B: to welcome    C: welcome     D: welcoming    

Q13.  I felt quite ____ so my mum told me this funny story to kill time.
A: interesting     B: bore     C: boring     D: bored 

Q100. During the 1950s, Elvis released a series of  ____ records and became the king of rock and roll.
A: topping chart     B: chart-topping     C: topping     D: top    
 

Answer:
Q1: D Q2.C Q3.C Q4.B Q5.B Q6.D
Q7.B ( upset 可以做名词,动词,其现在分词为upsetting,过去分词为upset,可以修饰人,如I am very upset)

Q8.A
Q9. B
Q10. A
Q11. C
Q12 D
Q13 D
Q100 B Chart-topping

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